26 Oct Making Hydrogen work
Climate change is a major problem worldwide. If we are unable to solve this problem, the temperature increase will cause disastrous consequences.
In general, the emission of CO2 is seen as the most important cause, apart from other harmful emissions which seriously affect air quality.
Internationally, this problem is generally acknowledged and objectives have been set to limit or eliminate harmful emissions as set out in the 2015 Paris Agreement.
Despite the good intentions behind these objectives, they do not provide practical solutions and it is therefore questionable whether these will be achieved.
The global demand for energy increases by the day and to date this demand can only be met with fossil fuels. On a global scale, initiatives in the area of sustainable energy are very limited and hardly have any influence on the final consumption of energy and the pollution resulting from it.
In order to reach a definitive solution, a number of properties for a new energy source are necessary:
– a new energy source must be clean in production and consumption;
– this energy source should be economically integrable and feasible;
– this energy source should cover a wide range of applications;
– large-scale storage of the energy that is produced should be possible;
– the energy should be distributable by means of existing infrastructures.
In the automotive field in particular, numerous initiatives have already been taken to search for solutions. However, none of these solutions meets all the criteria and the solutions have limitations in use or effectiveness.
Hydrogen seems to be the most promising solution. Hydrogen is in infinite supply, produces no harmful emissions, can be used as fuel or as a storage medium for energy, and electricity can be generated from hydrogen with a fuel cell, while heat can be generated from hydrogen with a catalyst.
But because of its low density, hydrogen is difficult to store and is therefore not practically usable. This is only possible with extreme cooling or under very high pressure, although these too have considerable drawbacks. Extreme cooling costs too much energy and high pressure requires heavy pressure tanks, the cost of compression, a limited area of application, high transportation costs, security risks, and a global distribution network that has yet to be realized.
The solution would be to bind hydrogen to a “carrier”. This would make it possible to store and transport hydrogen under atmospheric conditions.
This was researched extensively on the initiative of the Department of Energy (DOE – USA), but this research was eventually stopped because it was proven to be insufficiently effective.
In the Netherlands research is being conducted into the application of formic acid and also ammonia, but these too prove to not yet be practically and economically feasible.
The solution which meets all the criteria is called H2Fuel.
The production, storage, transportation, and consumption of H2Fuel does not produce harmful emissions such as CO₂ or other harmful substances. It can be stored, transported and consumed under atmospheric conditions, is suitable for many purposes (in addition to automotive also aviation and shipping, etc.), can be distributed by means of the existing
infrastructures for fossil fuels (also inner-city filling stations), is commercially acceptable for the large-scale storage of electrical energy and can be implemented in society in a reasonably short time since there are no technical barriers to prevent this. H2Fuel can also provide large-scale and small-scale energy and heat supplies without the need for a network, will bring stability at times when sustainable energy fluctuates, and can be produced, stored and transported globally. Furthermore, H2Fuel is very attractive commercially.
This Dutch invention binds hydrogen to sodium borohydride (NaBH4) together with ultra-pure water (UPW / H2O). An activator consisting of highly diluted hydrochloric acid or a catalyst or a combination of both triggers a reaction in these substances. During this reaction not only the hydrogen from the sodium borohydride is released (4H) but also the same quantity (4H) from the water, as well as heat. This means a yield of 8H for a production of 4H! The efficiency is 98% of what is theoretically achievable. No alternative has this extremely high efficiency.
(TNO validation October 30, 2015)
The reaction takes place exothermically on demand within seconds and the residues can be reused for conversion into sodium borohydride following a recycling process.
H2Fuel can be supplied in dry form (light and highest concentration), as a pumpable slurry
(lower concentration), or as a liquid (ready for use and the reaction concentration). Dilution takes place with UPW at the distribution point and in the consumer’s installation.
During the production process of H2Fuel, a number of optimization processes are applied.
Including the cost of transportation to the distribution points, but excluding the costs of the installation and business operation, the cost for the consumer is 4.10 euros per KG of hydrogen. This is cheaper than diesel for each kilometer that is driven. This extremely low price is the result of, among other things, the reuse of the residual products, the use of heat that is released during the reaction, but mostly of the extraction of hydrogen from the ultra-pure water at no cost.
A further optimization on the basis of the publications of Dr. Ying Wu (USA) and the scientific Aarhus research institute (Denmark) might be able to significantly lower this cost even further, possible even to a price level that makes it cost-effective and commercially attractive to convert coal-fired power stations into hydrogen plants: sustainable energy from the factory!
Although the optimization in question was proven on a laboratory scale, there are uncertainties concerning the actual effect (energy conservation by means of softening). This should either be clarified by Aarhus or a validation should take place.
H2Fuel has been patented by H2Fuel-Systems BV and H2Fuel-Cascade BV. In the USA, China and Japan these patents have already been granted: these patents are still pending in other areas, but are expected to be granted in the near future.
H2Fuel-systems BV and H2Fuel-Cascade BV believe that H2Fuel will be the new energy worldwide, and that its broad application is the answer to the emission of CO2 and other harmful emissions and all their disastrous consequences.
In addition, H2Fuel-Systems BV and H2Fuel-Cascade BV are convinced of the profitability of the commercialization of H2Fuel and the ecological and economic boost they will create.
Lastly, H2Fuel-Systems BV and H2Fuel-Cascade BV are convinced that the implementation of H2Fuel can be expected to be supported by governments, politicians, policymakers and the general public. This is also indicated by the agreements concerning the objectives that were generally entered into during the environmental summit in Paris in 2015. Only those who have no vision or who serve opposing interests will not endorse this development.
H2Fuel – making hydrogen work –