26 Oct Principle, effect and production
H2Fuel: the principle, the effect and the production.
H2Fuel is a synthesis whose main component is NaBH4, in which hydrogen is stored under atmospheric conditions. The composition is:
NaBH4 + H2O (UPW), in the pumpable form of which a few percent of NaOH is added for stability.
The synthesis can either be formed in dry form (highest concentration), as a slurry (lower concentration), or as a liquid (lowest concentration and then ready for use). The various stages are reached by adding UPW (Ultra-pure water).
In addition, there is an activator consisting of highly diluted acid or a catalyst or a combination of both.
The synthesis and the activator are brought from the plant to a filling station in dry form. There, UPW is added, as a result of which a pumpable slurry is created. This slurry is pumped into the consumer’s tank separately from the activator.
This tank has 3 compartments, 1x for H2Fuel, 1x for the activator, and 1x for the
spent fuel (residues of the reaction).
The slurry and the activator are moved from the tank into a reactor with the addition of UPW (from the fuel cell which has H2O as a residual product). Adding the UPW gives the synthesis the lowest concentration and it is then ready for use.
An exothermic reaction takes place inside the reactor, releasing 4H from the NaBH4. In the same reaction, 2 O is released from the UPW, which binds itself to the NaB, also releasing 4H from the UPW. This means that a total of 8H are released from the reaction.
Given the fact that heat (approx. 700C) is also released in this process, the reaction yields
8H and 40 MJ for a final production of 0.5 kg of H2 (thus 1 kg for the consumer).
The remnants from the reaction (spent fuel: NaOH + NaBO2 + H2O) are led back to the consumer’s tank and from there to the filling station, to be converted into NaBH4 again in the plant after recycling so that it can be reused.
A TNO validation on a laboratory scale has established that the release of hydrogen is approximately 98% of the theoretically achievable and that the reaction takes place within seconds.
This exceptionally high efficiency, the low cost (4H from UPW and reuse of spent fuel), and the fact that no harmful emissions are produced in this process (i.a. CO2) make H2Fuel economically and ecologically preferential.
Spent fuel can be reused as a carrier for hydrogen by creating new NaBH4 from it. This requires the supplementation of 5% raw materials (recycling loss), 4H, UPW, and 57 MJ of energy.
This process takes place in a volumetric cascade in a continuous process in the plant. In it, a reaction equal to the one described before takes place, the result of which is 8H and + 40 MJ (4H from NaBH4 and 4H from UPW).
The 8H is separated into 2x 4H, of which 4H is led to an internal synthesis and the other 4H of which is led to an external synthesis. The heat that is released is led to the internal synthesis to supplement the energy demand.
The goal of the internal synthesis is the creation of NaBH4 for its own use, or the
NaBH4 which is led to the reactor again so the process can be repeated, while
the external synthesis is intended for sale or consumption by third parties.
In the internal synthesis the spent fuel from the reaction is brought, UPW is added
5% raw materials (recycling loss), the separated 4H, and energy (40 MJ from the reaction becomes 27 MJ through loss heat exchanger + 57 MJ supplementation). The O is removed and can be used for another commercial goal. This creates NaBH4 again, which is led to the reactor so the process can be repeated.
The other separated 4H is led to the external synthesis. There too, the spent fuel (now originating from the final consumers) is input, UPW is added, 5% raw materials (recycling loss), and energy (now 84 MJ, since the 40 MJ from the reaction has gone to the internal synthesis). Here too, the O is removed. Thus NaBH4 is once again created, that can be used for sale. After drying this can happen dry, as slurry, or as a liquid. If another reactor were placed after the reservoir, sale as 8H can also take place.
Please note: this 4H becomes 8H again in the reaction when used by the consumer (4H from NaBH4 and 4H from UPW) + 40 MJ + spent fuel.
Since the energy demand in the process greatly affects the cost, the approach of independent energy generation was chosen. This can consist of energy generation by owned wind turbines or solar panels, but also by expanding the system with an additional circuit, the energy synthesis, or a combination of both.
This takes place in the same way as the production of the internal synthesis, now separating the 8H which is released from the reaction into 4H for the production of the NaBH4 (in accordance with the internal synthesis), and the other 4H, which is led to a fuel cell. This generates 42 MJ of electricity (0.5KG of H2 = 60MJ x 70%) which is used for the energy demand of the process.
Thus, H2Fuel also offers the possibility of large-scale electrical energy storage. Surplus sustainable energy is used as an energy source for the production of hydrogen (NaBH4) and can be released as needed by means of a fuel cell. The “energy system” can function as efficiency improvement here at times when no surplus energy is being supplied.
It is also possible to store energy generated by a wind turbine or solar cell directly in order to release it at a later moment. This does not require a distribution network. Moments of fluctuation are then no longer of influence.
The H2Fuel principle is also usable for large-scale or small-scale heat generation.
Instead of leading the hydrogen to a fuel cell, it is then run over a catalyst, creating heat.
Small systems, for example for households, can use H2Fuel for energy and heat in 1 system, without any harmful emissions. And there are more examples like this: just think of the automotive, shipping and aviation industries.
Tank in Volume Cascade
NaBH4 is moved from the production system to an inner tank. 50% of the supplied NaBH4 is led back from the inner tank to the production system to serve as input for new production. The other 50% is moved from the inner tank to the outer tank by overflow and is then available for sale/use. Since 50% is led back, filling takes place up to the moment of the overflow from the inner tank into the outer tank (i.e. at 50%) after 2x the volume of the system has been used. This therefore also means that the inner tank has a volume of 2x the volume system.
If the production is stopped for any reason whatsoever, production can be restarted with the amount of NaBH4 which remains in the inner tank.
The NaBH4 can be sold from the outer tank as a liquid or, after drying, in dry form. The NaBH4 can also be moved from the outer tank to a reactor so that hydrogen gas (8H) can be supplied.
In accordance with the H2Fuel production principle, because of the consumer, the NaBH4 to be sold will supply 8H for consumption in the reaction again, since, in addition to the 4H from the NaBH4, 4H from the UPW is once again released here.
Layout production Cascade system, basic.
Layout production Cascade system with green power supply.
Chemical hydrogen storage versus fuel characteristics.
For laymen it is difficult, to be able to follow the relationship, between the chemical description of stored hydrogen, expressed as %wt hydrogen, with the conversion to MJ in High and Low Heating Value, and the energy in fuel, expressed in MJ per kg.
Synchronizing Characteristics chemical stored Hydrogen and fuel.
To 1 kg of hydrogen generation according to the process of H2FUEL-SYSTEMS is half that hydrogen from the NaBH4 and the other half comes from the Ultra Pure Water. Here, the NaBH4 chemically converted into NaBO2. In this reaction the UPW fully consumed and is spoken about a stoichiometric relationship between both components.
Now hydrogen has an Atomic Mass of 1.0079 g/mol, NaBH4 a AMU of 37.832 g/mol and UPW of 18.015 g/mol.
1 mole is the amount of molecules that the AMU in grams.
(This number is the same for all substances and it is called Avogadro’s number, NA = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1).
For 500 grams of H2 from NaBH4 is 496 mol H.
This sits in 124 mol NaBH4 what 124 x 37.832 g = 4.7 kg.
For 500 grams of H2 from H2O is 496 mol H.
This sits in 248 mol H2O what 248 x 18.015 g = 4.47 kg.
Energetic is the reaction of NaBH4 to NaBO2 according to the H2FUEL process with the energy content of the both connections.
-123.9 kJ/mol for NaBH4 and-919.4 kJ/mol for NaBO2.
The energy released is -123.9 – -919.4 kJ/mol = 795.5 kJ/mol.
In total, 124 x 795.5 = 98,642 kJ = 98.64 MJ per kgH2 energy is produced.
To split the UPW is needed an energy of 237.1 kJ/mol. Split should be 248 mol.
This rate is 237.1 = 248 x 58,801 kJ = 58.8 MJ
This means a surplus of energy which can be used kgH2, 39.84 MJ per produced for other purposes.
How should energy technically the NaBH4 be classified?
From 4.7 kg NaBH4 can be made 1 kgH2, according to hydrogen standard is this 21.3%wt. NaBH4 has a AMU of 37.832. 4H 1.0079. According to this AMU it is only bringing 10.66 %wt.
At fuels is the standard to express this in the energy component MJ/kg. When applying the H2Fuel technique is the hydrogen gas produced on the spot from NaBH4. From 4.7 kg NaBH4 is 0.5 kg H2. In addition, energy is released which used for freeing up the hydrogen gas from the UPW. After use of the necessary energy remains a surplus of energy; large 40 MJ/kgH2.
Can yield, the use of the hydrogen by:
– High Heating Value (thermic): 141 MJ/kgH2.
– Low Heating Value (electric): 120 MJ/kgH2.
– Combined Heat and Power: 141 MJ/kgH2.
(High temperature fuel cell)
Which leads to the following final conclusion:
Which leads to the following final conclusion 141 + 40 = 181 MJ/kgH2.
1 kg NaBH4 contains 38,5 MJ/kg (l).
Physical properties components
Positioning H2FUEL technique relative to accepted techniques.
Compare MSDS chemical stored Hydrogen with Diesel.
H226 Flammable liquid and vapor.
H260 In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously.
H301 Toxic if swallowed.
H304 May be fatal if swallowed enters airways.
H311 Toxic in contact with skin.
H314 Causes severe burns.
H315 Causes skin irritation.
H332 Harmful if inhaled.
H351 Suspected of causing cancer.
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.
H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.
P210 Keep away from heat / sparks / open flames / hot surfaces. – Do not smoke
P223 Contact with water in connection with avoiding a violent reaction and possible flash fire.
P231 Incorporation inert gas.
P232 Protect from moisture.
P261 Avoid breathing dust / fume / gas / mist / vapors / spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves / protective clothing / eye / face protection.
P301 IF SWALLOWED:
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or physician.
P370 In case of fire:
P378 Extinguish with powder.
P422 Store under nitrogen.
P501 Content / container to…
R 20 Harmful by inhalation.
R 38 Irritating to the skin.
R 40 Carcinogenic effects are not excluded
R 51/53 Toxic to aquatic organisms in the water; may cause harmful long-term effects in the aquatic environment.
R 65 Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.
Compare NaBH4– Diesel: Physical Description.
Compare NaBH4 – Diesel:
ND means Not Definite
NaBH4 has a risk profile that is equal to or lower diesel.